Bashkortostan (Bashkir: Başqortostan), officially the Republic of Bashkortostan (Bashkir: Başqortostan Respublikahı), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains. The capital is the city of Ufa. According to the 2010 Census, the population of Bashkortostan is 4,072,292.

In accordance with Constitution of Bashkortostan and Russian Federation Constitution, it is a state, but has no sovereignty. On the 11th of October, 1990, Bashkortostan adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, but subsequently abandoned it. October, 11 is a Republic Day in Bashkortostan.

The name "Bashkortostan" derives from the name of the Bashkir ethnic group, also known as Bashkorts. While the root of the name is Turkic (it is a combination of of a word "baş", which means "head, chief, main, principal" in many Turkic languages, and "qurt" , which means "wolf", an animal sacred to the Turkic peoples.)

The Bashkir language belongs to the Kypchak branch of the Turkic languages.